Foundation is Structural Component Which is below ground level Transmit all load (Dead Load, Live Load, Wind load,Snow load and seismic Load ) from superstructure to the ground (sub structure ). It’s is the lowest part (Sub Structure) of the building structure. Foundations are generally divided into two categories: Shallow foundations and deep foundations
Major Function of Foundation
1) Load Bearing
Where foundation settlement occurs at roughly the same rate throughout all portions of a building, it is termed uniform settlement. Settlement that occurs at differing rates between different portions of a building is termed differential settlement.
What Causes Foundation Settlement?
- Weak bearing soil
- Poor compaction
- Changes in moisture content
- Maturing Trees and Vegetation
- Soil Consolidation
Deep foundation type is of a foundation. Different from shallow foundation by depth they are embedded into earth. There are some reason for set up deep foundation, they are low bearing soil conditions, heavy super structure load and height rise structure. There are variety of foundation available, pile foundations (end bearing pile, friction pile, tensile pile, sheet piles, soldier type pile and etc), slurry walls
Pile foundations are deep foundations.
Pile Foundation classifications
Piles may be classified by their basic design function (end-bearing, friction or a combination) or by their method of Installing (replacement (driven) or displacement (bored)).
Pile Foundation Classification By Installing
Displacement Piles/ Driven Piles
Displacement Piles which are driven are termed ‘Displacement Piles’ because their installation methods displace laterally the soils through which they are introduced Installation techniques Dropping weight The dropping weight or drop hammer is the most commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles
- Steel pile, concrete spun piles
- Precast Concrete Piles , Timber piles
Replacement Piles / Bored Piles
Replacement Piles that are formed by creating a borehole into which the pile is then cast or placed, are referred to as ‘Replacement Piles’ because existing material, usually soil is removed as part of the process.
- Bored Piles
Pile Foundation Classification By Functioning
Pile foundation can be classified by their function
End bearing piles
These piles transfer their load on to a firm stratum like rock. Soil bearing capacity is low install end bearing pile. Pre fabricated files and auger type pile can be used.
Friction piles carry the major part of loads only by means of friction developed between pile shaft and soil.