Basic Setting out in construction ( Surveying line , Lay-out)
“Setting out” is the process of locating points for columns, site boundary level, pile position and other necessary structural parts according to the construction drawing. Errors should be avoided because the whole structure will be build based on the respective setting out. A setting out should be made to full fill the requirements such as length, angle and level.
Steps for the simple setting out for a building
A temporary bench mark or level should be obtained to start the setting out for the whole building.
A specific height from a near land or from the road level can be obtained as the reference level point for a setting out. This level point will conduct all over the building boundary area or 1m away from the building boundary level.
Reason – The excavation work should be done as shown in the engineering drawing.
Mistake that can be achieved if a benchmark level shouldn’t be done on a building setting out is clearly shown in the following picture.
Building constructed with bench mark setting out
Building constructed without bench mark setting out
According to the engineering drawing given, mark the centre point of a corner column.
Measure the correct distance of column centre from boundary wall as given in the drawing. Use a pole or peg to pin it on the cement mortar available on the ground.
(Represent the column center)
Specific distance from
From this point, can continue the setting out related to the given drawing.
Take angular setting out – Right angles setting out to mark the next columns on a straight line. (Use the Pythagoras theorem)
Finally, after the completion of setting out for the whole building, use a twine to connect the centre lines of all columns. (Use the bench mark reference height to connect all of them).